An action is the irrevocable allocation of valuable resources with a view to achieving a specific objective(s). Foresight activities are action-oriented, in the sense that the final aim is to influence, shape and act upon the future.
Therefore, all Foresight processes and outputs should be oriented towards contributing to, facilitating or guiding the decision-making process. In other words, activities conducted for purely intellectual purposes (advancing knowledge for its own sake, publishing books or articles in academic journals) are future studies but are not Foresight.
There is therefore a close relationship between being action-oriented and being exploratory.